Solar System

• Biggest Planet
• Smallest Planet
• Nearest Planet to Sun
• Farthest Planet from Sun
• Nearest Planet To Earth
• Brightest Planet
• Brightest star after Sun
• Planet with maximum satellites
• Coldest Planet
• Hottest Planet
• Heaviest Planet
• Red Planet
• Biggest Satellite
• Smallest satellite
• Blue Planet
• Morning/Evening Star
• Earth’s Twin
• Green Planet
• Planet with a big red spot
• Lord of the Heavens
• Greatest Diurnal Temperature
• Ratio of Gravitational pull of Moon and Earth
• Part of Moon not Visible From Earth
• Revolution period of Moon around Earth
• Highest mountain of Moon
• Time taken by moonlight to reach Earth
Jupiter
Mercury
Mercury
Neptune
Venus
Venus
Sirius
Jupiter
Neptune
Venus
Jupiter
Mars
Gannymede
Deimos
Earth
Venus
Venus
Neptune
Jupiter
Jupiter
Mercury
1:6
41%
27 Days, 7 hrs, 43 min and 11.47 sec
35,000 ft (Leibniz Mts.)
1.3 sec

MERCURY

• Rotation: 58.65 days.

• Revolution: 88 days (Fastest revolution in solar System).

• Maximum diurnal range of temperature. Its days are scorching hot and nights are frigid.

• It has no atmosphere and no satellite.

VENUS

• Also called Earth’s Twin, because it is slightly smaller than earth (500 Km less in diameter).

• Popularly known as Evening star and morning star.

• Brightest object after sun and moon (because of 70% albedo, the reflecting power.)

• Closest planet to earth.

• It has no satellite.

• Slowest rotation in solar system (257 days.) Almost equal rotation and revolution (224.7 days).

Earth

• Also called Blue planet. It is the densest of all planets.

• Circumference : 40,232 km. Area: 510 million sq.km. Average distance from sun: 149 million-km.

• Spins on its imaginary axis from west to east in 23 hrs, 56 min and 40.91 sec.

• Takes 365 days, 5 hrs, 48 min and 45.51 sec in annual movement around the sun. Its results in one extra days every fourth year.

MARS

• Also called red planet

• Revolution:687 days

• Rotation: 24.6 hrs (almost equal to Earth)

• It has a thin atmosphere comprising of nitrogen argon.

• It is marked with dormant volcanoes and deep chasms where once water flowed. Recent explorations have thrown light on the possibilities of existence of life here.

• The highest mountain here is named ‘NIX Olympia’ which is three times higher than Mount Everest.

• It has 2 Satellites - Phobos and Deimos.

JUPITER

• Largest of all planets (71% of the total mass of all planets). Called lord the heavens.

• Jupiter appears to have stopped halfway to becoming a star. It was too massive to solidify as a planet but not massive enough to develop ‘nuclear fusion’ and become a star.

• It has the fastest rotation time (9.8 hr) in the solar system.

• Revolution- 12 years.

• It has 63 satellites (prominent are Europe, Gannymede & callisto). Gannymede is the largest satellite of solar system.

SATURN

• Second in size after Jupiter.

• Revolution: 29 yrs. Rotation: 10.3 hrs

• Least density of all (30 times less dense than earth).

• Unique feature is its system of rings (3 well defined).

• These are separate particles that move independently in circular orbits.

• 60 satellites (prominent is Titan).

• The space probe, Cassini, is on Saturn these days.

URANUS

• Identified as a planet in 1781 by William Hershel.

• Seems to rotate from north to south as it is inclined at an angle of 98 to its orbit.

• Revolution: 84 yrs. Rotation: 10.8 hrs.

• Surrounded by a system of 9 faint rings.

• Has 27 Satellites (prominent are Miranda, Ariel etc).

NEPTUNE

• Appears as ‘Greenish Star’.

• Revolution: 165 yrs. Rotation: 15.7 days.

• Has 5 faint rings.

• Discovered by J.G Galle of Berlin in 1846.

• 13 satellites.

PLUTO

• Pluto is much smaller than only of the official planet and now classified as a ‘dwarf planet’.

• A heavenly body must fulfill certain conditions and then only it can be called a planet.

• There are three requirement defined by IAU.

1. It needs to be in an orbit around the sun.

2. It needs to have enough gravity to pull itself into a spherical shape.

3. It needs to have clear and separate orbit away from the orbits of its neighbors’.

Pluto satisfied conditions (1), (2) but not (3). It’s orbit cuts through the orbit of Neptune and it is so small that the satellites of many other plants are bigger than Pluto. Hence it was, declared a ‘Dwarf Planet’ in 2006.

ASTEROIDS

• Asteroid are a series of very small planet or fragments of planet lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Also called ‘Planetoids or small planets’. They are thought to be the debris left over from the formation of inner planets.

COMETS

• It has a head and a tail. Its tail originates only when it gets closer to the sun. The tail can be 20-30 million km long. It always point away from the sun because of the force exerted by solar wind and radiation on the cemetery material.

METEORS (Shooting Stars)

• The meteors are probably the remains of comets which are scattered in the inter-planetary space of the solar system. On contact with the earth’s atmosphere, they burn due to friction.

MOON

• Circumference: 11,000 – km. Diameter: 3475 km. Gravitational pull: 1/6th of Earth.

• Its orbit around earth is elliptical. The maximum distance (Apogee) of the moon from the earth is 406,000 km. and the minimum distance (perigee) is 364,000 km. the average distance is 3, 82,200 km. All other satellites (except charon) have sizes below 1/8th the size of mother planets. But moon is about 1/4th the size of earth.

• Takes 27 days, 7 hrs, 43 min and 11.47 sec to complete one revolution around earth. Rotates on its axis in exactly the same time as it takes to complete one revolution. That is why we see only one side of the moon (only 59% of its surface).

PLANETS AND THEIR SATELLITES
Planet No. of satellites
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
0
0
1
2
63
60
27
13