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From Gainedu Organisation

Sports In India

History Of Cricket
Cricket can claim a longer history than any other team game. Historians have attempted to trace its origin in various ball games played by ancient races and, even if some of these derivations are a little far fetched, we can at least say that 250 years ago the game was being played in a form not so very dissimilar from that of today. Hampshire, particularly the village of Hambledon, Surrey and Kent really pioneered this game that was later to be taken so seriously at the other end of England, though the great days of the Hambledon cricketers were somewhat later than our late 17th century starting point. Cricket, like Hockey, was brought to the Indian sub-continent by the British. There are references to cricket having being played in India in the early parts of the 18th century. By the beginning of the 19th century the game was being played in the cities of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. The presidency matches began in 1892-93 between Parsis and Europeans and the tournament became the Bombay Triangular, with the Hindus fielding a team in 1907-08. In 1912-13, the tournament became quadrangular with the entry of Muslims in the field. With the efforts of several Princes, H E Grant-Gloven and A S de Mellow, the national championship, the Ranji Trophy began in 1935. India played its first official Test against England in 1932

Sr.No List of Indian First Class grounds
1. Barabati Stadium
2. Cuttack Chidambaram Stadium
3. Chepauk
4. Madras
5. Chinnaswamy Stadium
6. Bangalore Eden Gardens
7. Calcutta Feroz Shah Kotla
8. Delhi Green Park (Modi Stadium)
9. Kanpur Indira Priyadarshini Stadium
10. Vishakhapatnam Lal Bahadur Stadium
11. Hyderabad Moin-ul-Haq Stadium
12. Patna Moti Bagh Stadium
13. Baroda Nehru Stadium
14. Pune Punjab Cricket Association Stadium
15. Mohali
16. Chandigarh Roop Singh Stadium
17. Gwalior Sardar Patel Gujarat Stadium
18. Motera
19. Ahmedabad Sawai Mansingh Stadium
20. Jaipur Vidarbha C.A. Ground
21. Jaipur Vidarbha C.A. Ground
22. Nagpur Wankhede Stadium
23. Bombay

Achievements
India achieved its first 'Cup' victory in international cricket in 1983 when it won the Prudential World cup beating West Indies by 43 runs at Lord's under the captaincy of Kapil Dev.

Following are the details of India's 'Cup' victories in International Cricket.

Sr.No Year Venue Championship
1. 1983 England Prudential World Cup
2. 1984 Sharjah Asia Cup
3. 1985 Australia Benson and Hedges World Championship
4. 1985 Sharjah Rothmans Trophy
5. 1985 Sharjah Sharjah Cup
6. 1988 Bangladesh Asia Cup
7. 1990 India Asia Cup
8. 1993 India Hero Cup
9. 1994 Sri Lanka Singer Cup
10. 1995 Sharjah Asia Cup

India's Test record against other countries.

Opponent 1st Test Tests Wins Losses Draws Tie
England June 25, 1932 81 14 31 36 -
Australia November28, 1947 50 8 24 17 1
West Indies Nov 10, 1948 64 7 27 30 -
Pakistan October 16, 1952 44 4 7 33 -
New Zealand November19, 1955 35 13 6 16 -
Sri Lanka September17, 1982 14 7 1 6 -
Zimbabwe October 18, 1992 2 1 - 1 -
South Africa November13, 1992 4 - 1 3 -
Total 294 54 97 142 1

History Of hockey


Hockey's birth place is Asia and Persia is credited with having devised it about 2000 B.C. It is said that Greeks and Romans played hockey but nothing is known about the nature of the game that they played. The earliest mention of the present day game dates back only to 1527, when the Galway Statutes included 'hokie'- the hurling of little ball with sticks or staves in a list of prohibited games. Modern hockey, as created in England, resembles closely games once popular in the British Isles and there is no doubt that hockey's immediate fore-runners were the Scottish shinty, the English and Welsh bandy an the Irish hurling. The game has witnessed numerous refinements over the years. Among the earliest refinement was the prohibition of raising the stick above shoulder level. Hockey became popular in India when the British Regiments played the game in India and introduced it in the British India Regiments who quickly picked up the game. The first hockey club was formed in Calcutta in 1885-86 followed by Bombay and Punjab. The Bengal Hockey was the first Hockey Association in India founded in 1908. The second was formed in 1920 in Karachi by the name 'Sind Hockey Association'. In the Olympic games, India played hockey for the first time n 1928 held in Amsterdam. She reached the finals defeating Austria, Belgium, Denmark and Switzerland. In the final, India defeated Holland by three goals to nil.

Acheivement

Hockey is the National Game of India. Unmatched excellence and incomparable virtuosity brought India a string of Olympic gold medals. The brilliant Indians brought a touch of black magic to their play and the ball juggling feats of the Indians were a sheer delight. The Golden Era of hockey in India was the period from 1928 - 1956 when India won 6 consecutive gold medals in the Olympics. During the Golden Era, India played 24 Olympic matches, won all 24, scored 178 goals (at an average of 7.43 goals per match) and conceded only 7 goals. The two other gold medals for India came in the 1964 Tokyo Olympics and the 1980 Moscow Olympics. In 1956, after India won the last of its six consecutive gold medals, the manager of the Pakistan hockey team, Riazuddin Ahmed said, "This is the first time that we played India in the Olympics. The next time we play, the result will be different." His prophetic words came true in 1960, when after 28 consecutive victories in the Olympic Games, India lost 0-1 to Pakistan in the 1960 Rome Olympics final.

History Of Kho-Kho


Kho-Kho ranks as one of the most popular traditional sports in India. The origin of Kho-Kho is difficult to trace, but many historians believe, that it is a modified form of 'Run Chase', which in its simplest form involves chasing and touching a person. With its origins in Maharashtra, Kho-Kho in ancient times, was played on 'raths' or chariots, and was known as Rathera. Like all Indian games, it is simple, inexpensive and enjoyable. It does, however, demand physical fitness, strength, speed and stamina, and a certain amount of ability. Dodging, feinting and bursts of controlled speed make this game quite thrilling. To catch by pursuit - to chase, rather than just run - is the capstone of Kho-Kho.The game develops qualities such as obedience, discipline, sportsmanship, and loyalty between team members. The rules of the game were framed in the beginning of the 20th century. At Gymkhana Poona, a Committee was formed in 1914, to frame its rules. The first ever rules on Kho-Kho were published from Gymkhana Baroda, in 1924. In 1959-60, the first national Kho-Kho championship was organised in Vijayawada (Andhra Pradesh). The Government has initiated the following awards for the game: Arjuna Award, Eklavya Award for men, Rani Laxmi Bai award for women, Veer Abhimanyu award for boys under 18, and Janaki award for girls under 16.

How the game is played

Each team consists of twelve players, but only nine players take the field for a contest. A match consists of two innings. An innings consists of chasing and running turns of 7 minutes each. Eight members of the chasing team sit in their eight squares on the central lane, alternately facing the opposite direction, while the ninth member is an active chaser, and stands at either of the posts, ready to begin the pursuit. Members of the chasing team have to put their opponent out, touching them with their palms, but without committing a foul. All the action in Kho-Kho is provided by the defenders, who try to play out the 7 minutes time, and the chasers who try to dismiss them. A defender can be dismissed in three ways: 1) if he is touched by an active chaser with his palm without committing a foul, 2) if he goes out of the limits on his own, 3) if he enters the limit late. Defenders enter the limit, in batches of three. After the third and last defender of batch is out, the next batch must enter the limits, before a 'kho' is given by the successful active chaser. Defenders have full freedom of movement on both sides of the central lane, but the active chaser cannot change the direction to which he is committed. He cannot cross the central lane. An active chaser can change position with a seated chaser, by touching him from behind by palm, and uttering the word 'kho' loudly, and simultaneously, chase or attack is build up through a series of 'khos' as the chase continues with a relay of chasers. At the end of the innings there is an interval of 5 minutes and an interval of 2 minutes, in between the turns. Each side alternates between chasing and defence. Kho-Kho can be played by men, women, and children of all ages. The game requires a very small piece of evenly surfaced ground, rectangular in shape, and 27m by 15m. The only equipment required are the two poles. The game lasts no more than 37 minutes.

History of Golf in India


In India you can play golf almost anywhere, for this sport is widely played by a cross-section of people. In the hills and high Himalayan fastness, in metropolitan cities and in small towns, by lakes and forests, or sorrounded by tea estates, out in the deserts and in old cantonment...the flavour of India is visible everywhere. India was the first country outside Great Britain to take up the game of golf. The Royal Calcutta Golf Club, established in 1829, is the oldest golf club in India and the first outside Great Britain. Because of the British rule, the eighteenth century saw a mushrooming of new golf clubs in India. The founding of the Royal Golf Club of Calcutta in 1829 was followed by the now-defunct Royal Bombay Golf Club in 1842 and the Bangalore Golf Club in !876. The Shillong Golf Club incorporated a golf course in 1886. Golf has already been played in India for 59 years before the first major course was opened in the USA and Europe in 1888. By the end of the !9th century, India had a dozen golf clubs. What makes golfing in India exciting is the diversity of its courses. Not only does it have the oldest gold club in the world outside Great Britain, but also the highest, at Gulmarg (altitude 2,700 metres) in Kashmir. There are golf courses in the mountains, plains, deserts and at beach resorts. The environment of each course is unique in its culture and history, highlighting all that makes India a diverse destination. In fact, it would not be wrong to say that one of the best ways to experience India is through its golf courses.

Most of India's courses are well connected by road, rail, and air, and have excellent accommodation facilities. Unfortunately, India still has to rely on the West for golfing equipment, and visitors are advised to carry their own sets, with an ample supply of golf balls. Till the '50s, golf clubs in India were affiliated to the Royal Calcutta Golf Club, which followed the rules of St. Andrews in Scotland. In December 1955, a group of golfers got together to form the Indian Golf Union as the controlling body for the game. The Indian Golf Union is now affiliated to the World amateur Golf Council, and has done a great deal to promote golfing in the country. In 1957, it started its first training camp at the Royal Golf Club in Calcutta, where assistant professionals and caddies were brought from all over the country and trained to teach golf. The year 1958 is a landmark in the history of Indian golf. For the first time, the amateur Indian Championship was moved away from the Royal Calcutta Golf Club to be played alternately at Delhi, Bombay and Calcutta. The most important annual event in the calendar of the Indian Open Golf Championship was first played in Delhi in 1964, and won by the Australian golfer, Peter Thompson. Golfing in India has come a long way, and a large number of Indian players now compete on the international circuit. Golf enthusiasts continue to grow in numbers, and new courses are added almost every year. And what could be a better feather in India's golfing cap than the fact that Delhi was chosen to host the first ever golf competition for the Asian Games in 1982.

History Of Kabaddi


Though kabaddi is primarily an Indian game, not much is known about the origin of this game. There is, however, concrete evidence, that the game is 4,000 year old. It is a team sport, which requires both skill and power, and combines the characteristics of wrestling and rugby. It was originally meant to develop self defence, in addition to responses to attack, and reflexes of counter attack by individuals, and by groups or teams. It is a rather simple and inexpensive game, and neither requires a massive playing area, nor any expensive equipment. This explains the popularity of the game in rural India. Kabaddi is played all over Asia with minor variations.
A Kabaddi match in progress
Kabaddi is known by various names viz. Chedugudu or Hu-Tu-Tu in southern parts of India, Hadudu (Men) and Chu - Kit-Kit (women) in eastern India, and Kabaddi in northern India. The sport is also popular in Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Japan and Pakistan.
The Game
In Kabaddi, two teams compete with each other for higher scores, by touching or capturing the players of the opponent team. Each team consists of 12 players, of which seven are on court at a time, and five in reserve. The two teams fight for higher scores, alternating defence and offense. The court is as large as that for a dodge ball game. The game consists of two 20 minute halves, with a break of five minutes for change of sides. The kabaddi playing area is 12.50m x 10m, divided by a line into two halves. The side winning the toss sends a 'raider', who enters the opponents' court chanting, 'kabaddi-kabaddi'. The raider's aim is to touch any or all players on the opposing side, and return to his court in one breath. The person, whom the raider touches, will then be out. The aim of the opposing team, will be to hold the raider, and stop him from returning to his own court, until he takes another breath. If the raider cannot return to his court in the same breath while chanting 'kabaddi', he will be declared out. Each team alternates in sending a player into the opponents' court. If a player goes out of the boundary line during the course of the play, or if any part of his body touches the ground outside the boundary, he will be out, except during a struggle.
Lona
The team scores a lona ( a bonus of two points), if the entire opposition is declared out. The game then continues by putting all the players on both sides. Matches are staged on the basis of age-groups, and weight. Seven officials supervise a match - one referee, two umpires, two linesmen, a time keeper and a scorer.

Types of Kabaddi
In India, Kabaddi is recognised in three forms:
• Surjeevani
• Gaminee
• Amar
The 'Surjeevani' form of Kabaddi is played under the Kabaddi Federation of India, and is governed by its rules and regulations. In the 'Surjeevani' form of Kabaddi, one player is revived against one player of the opposite team who is out. i.e. one out, one in. The duration of the game, the number of players, the dimensions of the court, etc. have been fixed by the Kabaddi Federation of India.
In the 'Gaminee' type of Kabaddi, there is no revival. When all the players of team are out, the game ends. So there is no time limit in this category.
In the 'Amar' form of Kabaddi, whenever any player is touched (out), he does not go out of the court, but stays inside, and one point is awarded to the team that touched him. In this way, one point for each touch of the opposite team, i.e. to the team who touches the anti player. This game is also played on a time basis, i .e the time is fixed.
In the northern part of the country, i.e. Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi, this game is played in a circle. This is known as 'Circle Kabaddi' or Amar Kabaddi. If it is played without a court, as in some places, it's called 'Goongi Kabaddi'. The Goongi Kabaddi is nothing but wrestling between two players.
The first world Kabaddi championship in the history of the game, was organised in Hamilton when approximately 14,000 people packed Copps Coliseum, to watch stars from India, Pakistan, Canada, England, and the United States compete.
The Kabaddi Federation of India (KFI) was founded in 1950, and it compiled a standard set of rules. The Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India (AKFI) was founded in 1973. The AKFI has given new shape to the rules, and it has also the rights of modification in the rules. The Asian Kabaddi Federation was founded under the chairmanship of Mr. Sharad Pawar (Maharashtra).
Some of the Arjuna Award winners are Sh. Sadanand Mahadeo Shetty, Sh. Sadanand Mahadeo Shetty, Sh. Shakuntla Panghar Kholavakar, Sh. Shantaram Jaatu, Kumari Monika Nath, Kumari Maya Kashi Nath, Rama Sarkar etc. Kabaddi was one of the demonstration games at Asiad '82.

History Of Lawn Tennis


The history of the game is varied and ancient. Philologists have suggested that the name tennis was adopted from the French exclamation 'tenez'. Another view associates the term tennis with an Egyptian town on the Nile known as Tinnis in Arabic. Together with court tennis, the 12th century crusaders brought some of its terms to Europe. Thus, racket is derived form the Arab word 'rahat' meaning 'the palm of hand'. After 1800, the game become popular in Europe and rules become formalised. Finally in 1877, the game became totally standardised.

How the game is played

Lawn Tennis is a game played indoors or outdoors on a rectangular court by two persons (in singles) or by four persons (doubles). The players use rackets to strike a ball back and forth across a net. The object is to score points by hitting the ball out of the opponents reach or in such a way that he cannot return it successfully. A player who gains 4 points with an advantage of two or more points over the opponent wins a game. 6 games make one set. Both in singles doubles, men compete in 3-set matches. A player who gains two out of 3 sets wins a match. To win the final match, however, a player who gains 3 out of 5 sets. In the other events (singles for women, doubles for women, and mixed doubles), the 3-set system is adopted; in this system, a player must gain two out of 3 sets to win a match. To win a game, it is necessary to gain 4 points, with an advantage of two or more points over the opponent. In case of deuce, a player must gain two straight points to win the game. To win a set, it is necessary to win 6 games, with an advantage of two or more games. If the score is 5-5, the player who then gains two consecutive games wins. If the score is 6-6, the tie-break system is used to decide the winner.

Family law

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Education law

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