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From Gainedu Organisation

Scientific Invention

Year Inventor Name Invent Details
1642 Blaise Pascal (France) Adding Machine Earliest commercial machine invented by William Burroughs (U.S.) in St. Louis, Missouri in 1885.
1893 J.S. Duncan (U.S.) Addressograph Manufactured in Chicago, Illinois.
1903 Orville Wright (1871-1948) and Wilbur Wright (1867-1912), (U.S.) Airplane Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
1852 Henri Giffard (France) Airship (non-rigid) Steam-powered propeller flew over Paris (1852).
1900 Graf Ferdinand von Zeppelin (Germany) Airship (rigid) Bodensee
1867 Dr. Joseph Lister (England). Antiseptic -
1879 C.F. Brush (U.S.) Arc Lamp Cleveland, Ohio
1894 Sir William Ramsay and Baron Ray Leigh Argon (Great Britain).
1899 Dr. Felix Hoffman, Germany. Aspirin -
1907 Lwo H. Backcland (Belgium/U.S.) Bakelite -
1783 Balloon Srimanta Sankaradeva Kalakshetra Tethered flight, Paris manned free flight, Paris.
1888 John J. Loud (U.S.) Ballpoint Pen First practical models by Ladisloa and George Biro (Hungary) in 1938.
1873 Bihar Barbed Wire manufactured at De Kalb, Illinois.
1888 John Boyd Dunlop (Scotland) Bicycle Tyres (pneumatic) Principle patented but undeveloped by Orbert William Thomson (Scotland), June 10 1885. First motor car pneumatic tyres adapted by Andre and Edouard Michelin (France), 1885 (see rubber tyres).
1780 Benjamin Franklin (U.S.) Bifocal Lens .). His earliest experiments began c. 1760.
1849 Claude Minie (France) Bullet -
1858 Robert Wilhelm von Bunsen (Germany) Michael Faraday (England) Bunsen Burner had previously designed an adjustable burner.
1851 : Edwin T. Holmes (U.S.) Burglar Alarm Electric installed, Boston Massachusetts (February 21).
1817 Friedrich Stromeyer (Germany) Cadmium -
1320 Germany Cannon (iron) Earliest English illustration dated 1326.
1876 Gottlieb Daimler (Germany) Charles E. Duryea (U.S.) Carburettor -
1876 Melville R. Bissell (U.S.) Carpet Sweeper Grand Rapids, March. (Patent, September 19).
1929 William Lear and Elmer Wavering (USA) Car Radio -
1879 James Ritty (U.S.) Cash Register Built in Dayton, Ohio. Taken over by National Cash Register Co. in 1884.
1900 I.E. Brandenberger (Switzerland) Cellophane Machine production not before 1911.
1861 Alexander Parkes (England) Celluloid Birmingham, England; developed and trade marked by I.W. Hyatt (U.S.) in 1873.
1824 Joseph Aspdin (England). Cement -
1941 J.R. Whinfield, J.T. Dickson (England) Dacron First available 1950, marketed in U.S.
1817 Anthony A. Plantson (U.S.) Dental Plate -
1855 Charles Goodyear (U.S) Dental Plate (rubber), -
1895 Rudolf Diesel (Germany Diesel Engine Lower pressure oil engine patent by Stuart Akroyd, 1890. Diesel's first commercial success, Augsberg, 1897.
1902 Dr. F. Lanchester (England) Disc Brake First used on aircraft 1953 (Dunlop Rubber Co.).
1800 Volta (Italian) Electric Battery Bhuj
1946 Simmons Co., Petersburg, Virginia, U.S. Electric Blanket Thermostatic control.
1874 St. George Lane-Fox (England). Electric Cooking Utensil -
1882 Wheeler (USA). H.W. Seeley (U.S.), New York City. Electric Fan -
1660 Otto von Gueriche (Germany) Electric Generation (Static) -
1879 Thomas Alva Edison (U.S.) Electric Lamp First practical demonstration at Menlo Park, New Jersey.
1923 Dr. Lee de Forest (U.S.) Film (musical) New York demonstration (March 13).
1926 Warner Bros. (U.S.). Film (talking) First release Don Juan, Warner Theatre, New York (August 5).
1886 Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan (France) Fluroine -
1923 Birdseyes (USA) Food Frozen -
1884 Lewis E. Waterman (U.S.) Fountain Pen Patented by D. Hyde (U.S.), 1830, undeveloped.
1792 Murdock (Scotland) Gas Lighting Private house in Cornwall, 1792; Factory, Birmingham, 1798; London Street, 1807.
1860 Piciontti (Italian). Generator Continuous current: improved by Gramme (Belgium). 1870.
1080 Augsberg (Germany) Glass (stained) Earliest English, c. 1170, York Minister.
1500 Egypt and Mesopotamia (Today's Iraq) Glassware Glass blowing, Syria, c. 50 BC.
1853 Sir George Cayley (England) Glider Near Brompton Hall, Yorkshire, England. Passenger possibly John Appleby.
1878 Thomas Edison (USA). Gramophone
1930 d' Ascanio (Italy) Helicopter Co-axial machine. Earliest drawing of principle, Le Mans Museum, France, c. 1460. First serviceable machine by Igor Sikorsky (U.S.). 1939.
Year Inventor Name Invent Details
1868 Sir William Ramsay (Great Britain). Helium -
1955 C.S. Cockerell (England) Hovercraft Patented December 12. Earliest air-cushion vehicle patent was in 1877 by J.I. Thornycroft (1843-1921) (England). First 'light' Saunders Roe SRNI at. Cowes, England, (May 30, 1959).
1000 Hallstatt, Austria Iron Working Introduced into Britain c. 550 BC.
1937 Sir Frank Whittle (England) Jet Engine First tested run in 1937. Principles announced by Merconnet (France) 1909 and Maxime Guillaume (France) 1921. First flight August 27, 1939 by Heinkel He.
1960 Dr. Charles H. Townes (U.S.) Laser First demonstration by Theodore Maiman (U.S.). (Abbreviation for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation).
1500 Greeks for wood-working Lathe Possibly developed from potter's wheel. Earliest screw cutting lathe by Henry Maudsly (England) (1771-1831).
1934 J.F. Cantrell (U.S.) Launderette Fort Worth, Texas, April 18.
1687 Isaac Newton (England) Laws of Gravitation and Motion -
1752 Benjamin Franklin (U.S.) Lightning Conductor Philadelphia.
1861 Richard Gaffing (U.S.) Machine Gun -
2500 Sumerians (clay tablets)h Maps Earliest world map by Eratosthenes c. 220 BC.
1863 Hippolyte Mege-Mouries (France) Margarine Initially, made of beef suet, warm milk and sheep stomach lining.
1855 M.E. Lundstrom (Sweden) Match Amorphous phosphorus disc, 1845, Anton von Schrotter.
1876 Alexander Graham Bell (U.S.) Microphone Name coined 1878 by David Hughes.
1590 Zacharis Janssen (Netherlands) Microscope Compound convex-concave lens.
1939 Vladimir Kosme Sworykin (Russia, later U.S) Microscope (Electron) Demonstrated Camden, New Jersey, 1940.
1915 Georges Claude (France) Neon Lamp First installation in U.S. Cosmopolitan Theatre, July 1923.
1843 Paris, France Night Club First was Le Bai des Anglais, Paris.
1609 Johannes Kepler (Germany). Nineteenth Laws of Planetary Motion -
1937 Dr. Wallace H. Carothers (U.S.) Manipur State Museum at Du Pont Labs, Seaford Delaware, U.S. First stockings made about 1937. Bristle production, February 25, 1938. Yarn production, December 1939.
1775 Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (France). Oxygen -
1839 Christian Schonbein (Germany). Ozone -
1797 Andre Jacques Garnerin (France) Parachute First descent from 2,230 ft over Paris. Earliest jump from aircraft March 1, 1912 by Capt A. Berry (U.S.) over St. Louis, Missouri.
1935 Corlton C. Magee (U.S.) Parking Meter Oklahoma City (July 16).
1878 Thomas Alva Edison (U.S.) Phonograph Head cranked cylinder at Menlo Park. J. J. Patent, February 19. First described on April 30, 1877, by Charles Cross (France) (1842-88).
1826 PJoseph Nicéphore Niepce (France) Photography (on metal) Sensitised pewter plate, 8 hrs exposure at Chalon-sur-Saone, France
1835 W. H. Fox Talbot (England) Photography (on paper) Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire, England.
1888 John Carbutt (U.S.) Photography (on film) Kodak by George Eastman (U.S.) (1854-1932), August 1888.
1709 Cristofori (Italy). Piano -
1455 Johannes Gutenberg (Germany) Printing Press Hand printing known in India in 868.
1895 Lord Ernest Rutherford (British-New Zealand) Radio Telegraphy (over 1 km) At Cambridge, England.
1901 Guglielmo Marconi (Italy) Radio Telegraphy (Trans-Atlantic) From Poldhu, Cornwall to St. Holn's, New Zealand (December 12). Earliest broadcast of speech by Prof. Reginald Fessenden (U.S.) (1868-1932) in Brant Rock, Massachusetts, December 24, 1906.
1851 James Harrison (Australian) Refrigerator j Bendigo. Australia, Brewery
1849 William Hunt (U.S.) Safety Pin First manufactured in New York City.
1755 Charles Fredrick Wiesenthal (U.S.) Sewing Machine First patent in England by Thomas Saint, 1790. First machine put to factory use invented by Barthelemy Thimonnier (France) (1793-1854), patented in 1830. The eye pointed needle and double-lock stitch invented by Walter Hunt of New York 1832, but never patented. Elias Howe (1819-67) of Spencer, Mass, developed his machine independently (not aware of Hunt's work), patented in.,1846. Earliest practical domestic machine invented by Isaac M. Singer (1811-75) of Pittstown, New York, 1851.
1769 Sir Richard Arkwright (England) Spinning Frame -
1885 Henry Bessemer (The Steel Man) (England) Steel Production At St. Pancreas, London. Cementation of wrought iron bars by charcoal contact known to Chalybes people of Asia Minor, c. 1440 BC.
1913 Harry Brearley (England) Steel (rustless or stainless) First cast at Sheffield, England (August 20). Knapp patent, October 1912 for chromium carbon steel; failed to recognise corrosion resistance.
1879 Ernst Werner von Siemens (Germany) Streetcar (electric) Earliest permanent self-propelled public streetcar at Lichterfelde in Berlin, Germany, 1881. Demonstration at Berlin trade exhibition over 300 yards, May 31,1879.
1914 Sir Ernest Dunlop Swinton (England) Tank (military) Built at Leicester, England. Tested in September 1915
1837 Sir William Cook Sir Charles Wheatstone (England) Telegraph Demonstrated on 25th July 1837 between Euston and Camden Town in London.
1837 Samuel F.B. Morse (U.S.) RTelegraph Code The real credit belonged largely to his assistant, Alfred Vail (U.S.).
1876 Alexander Graham Bell (U.S.) Telephone TFirst exchange at Boston, Massachusetts, 1878.
1890 Harlow Bundy (USA). Time Recorder -
1892 John Froelich (U.S.). Tractor (1st gasoline/petrol powered engine) Completed in Iowa (September 6 1892).
1842 William Stanley, Jr. (U.S.). Transformer (induction coil) Hyderabad
1864 Peter Mitterhofer (Austria). Typewriter First practical patent by Christopher Soles (U.S.) (1868).
1841 Martin Heinrich Klaproth (Germany). Uranium Agartala
1913 Elmer V. McCollum and M. Davis (USA). Vitamin A -
1916 Elmer V. McCollum (USA). Vitamin B -
1920 Albert Szent-Györgyi and Charles Glen King (USA). Vitamin C -
1920 Sir Edward Mellanby (USA). Vitamin D He also studied role of Vitamin D in preventing Rickets in 1919.
1922 Sir Herbert McLean Evans (USA). Vitamin E -
1929. Henrik Dam (Denmark) and Edward Adelbert Doisy (USA). Vitamin K -
1907 Hurley Machine Company of Chicago (U.S) Washing Machine (electric) produced first model of electric washer called "Thor" based on design by Alva J. Fisher, (1910).
1791 Abraham-Louis Breguet (France) Watch (self-winding) Rocker Pedometer action.
1791 Abraham-Louis Breguet (France) Watch (self-winding) Rocker Pedometer action.
1877 Elisha Thompson (U.S.) Welder (electric welding) -
1938 Chester Floyd Carlson (U.S) Xerography First photocopier machine marketed in U.S. in 1950.
1895 Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (Germany) X-ray University of Wurzburg (November 8).
1899 Ferdinand von Zeppelin (Germany). Zeppelin, (Rigid Airship) -
1893 Whitcomb L. Judson (U.S.) Zip Fastener First practical fastener or modern zipper invented in U.S. by Gideon Sundback (Sweden) in 1913

Family law

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cIVIL law

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bUSINESS law

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Criminal law

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Education law

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