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World Organizations

  • Foundation Date:November, 1989
  • Headquarter : London
  • Sectery General : Salil Shetty

Function and Objective of Organiztion:Amnesty International is a global movement of more than 3 million supporters, members and activists in over 150 countries and territories who campaign to end grave abuses of human rights. We are independent of any government, political ideology, economic interest or religion, and are funded mainly by our membership and public donations. Our vision is for every person to enjoy all the rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights standards.

  • Foundation Date: 1961
  • Headquarter :Singapore
  • Sectery General :Dr Alan Bollard
  • Member Countries : 21
About APEC

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, or APEC, is the premier forum for facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. APEC is an intergovernmental grouping that operates on the basis of non-binding commitments, open dialogue and equal respect for the views of all participants. Unlike the WTO or other multilateral trade bodies, APEC has no treaty obligations required of its participants. Decisions made within APEC are reached by consensus and commitments are undertaken on a voluntary basis.

APEC has 21 members - referred to as "member economies" - which account for approximately 40 percent of the world's population, approximately 55 percent of world GDP and about 44 percent of world trade. APEC's 21 Member Economies are Australia; Brunei Darussalam; Canada; Chile; People's Republic of China; Hong Kong, China; Indonesia; Japan; Republic of Korea; Malaysia; Mexico; New Zealand; Papua New Guinea; Peru; The Republic of the Philippines; The Russian Federation; Singapore; Chinese Taipei; Thailand; United States of America; Viet Nam.

Purpose and Goals

APEC was established in 1989 to further enhance economic growth and prosperity for the region and to strengthen the Asia-Pacific community.Since its inception, APEC has worked to reduce tariffs and other trade barriers across the Asia-Pacific region, creating efficient domestic economies and dramatically increasing exports. APEC's key to achieving vision are referred to as the 'Bogor Goals' of free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific by 2010 for industrialised economies and 2020 for developing economies. These goals were adopted by Leaders at their 1994 meeting in Bogor, Indonesia. Free and open trade and investment helps economies to grow, creates jobs and provides greater opportunities for international trade and investment. Free and open trade helps to lower the costs of production and thus reduces the prices of goods and services which will be a direct benefit to all. APEC also works to create an environment for the safe and efficient movement of goods, services and people across borders in the region through policy alignment and economic and technical cooperation.

  • Foundation Date:8th August,1967
  • Headquarter :Bangkok, Thailand
  • Member Countries : 10
About ASEAN

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, or ASEAN, was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the Founding Fathers of ASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Brunei Darussalam then joined on 7 January 1984, Viet Nam on 28 July 1995, Lao PDR and Myanmar on 23 July 1997, and Cambodia on 30 April 1999, making up what is today the ten Member States of ASEAN.

Aims and Purpose

As set out in the ASEAN Declaration, the aims and purposes of ASEAN are:

  • • To accelerate the economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region through joint endeavours in the spirit of equality and partnership in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asian Nations.
  • • To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries of the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter.
  • • To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest in the economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields.
  • • To provide assistance to each other in the form of training and research facilities in the educational, professional, technical and administrative spheres.
  • • To collaborate more effectively for the greater utilisation of their agriculture and industries, the expansion of their trade, including the study of the problems of international commodity trade, the improvement of their transportation and communications facilities and the raising of the living standards of their peoples.
  • • To promote Southeast Asian studies.
  • • To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organisations with similar aims and purposes, and explore all avenues for even closer cooperation among themselves.
Fundamental Principles

In their relations with one another, the ASEAN Member States have adopted the following fundamental principles, as contained in the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (TAC) of 1976:

  • • Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity, and national identity of all nations.
  • • The right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion.
  • • Non-interference in the internal affairs of one another.
  • • Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful manner.
  • • Renunciation of the threat or use of force;and
  • • Effective cooperation among themselves.
  • Foundation Date:December 19th 1966
  • Headquarter :Manila
  • President : Takehiko Nakao
  • Member Countries : 67

ADB was conceived amid the postwar rehabilitation and reconstruction efforts of the early 1960s. The vision was of a financial institution that would be Asian in character and foster economic growth and cooperation in the region - then one of the poorest in the world.

A resolution passed at the first Ministerial Conference on Asian Economic Cooperation held by the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East in 1963 set that vision on the way to becoming reality.

The Philippines capital of Manila was chosen to host the new institution - the Asian Development Bank - which opened on 19 December 1966, with 31 members that came together to serve a predominantly agricultural region. Takeshi Watanabe was ADB's first President.

For the rest of the 1960s, ADB focused much of its assistance on food production and rural development. Its operations included ADB's first technical assistance, loans, including a first on concessional terms in 1969, and bond issue in Germany.

Principles

ADB's Independent Evaluation Department helps ADB become a learning organization that continuously improves its development effectiveness and is accountable to its stakeholders. Strategic principles give context and coherence to action, and frame the generation and appraisal of alternative options.

  • • Evaluations should contribute to the accomplishment of ADB's mission. ADB's mission is to help developing member countries reduce poverty and improve the quality of life of their citizens. Evaluations should advance the design and implementation of ADB's policies, strategies, and operations with respect to relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability.
  • • The decision to evaluate should be strategic. Evaluations should be designed to lead to action and contribute to effective decision making at all levels. Selectivity in determining what policies, strategies, and operations are to be assessed at what time will condition evaluations to provide useful findings and recommendations and help ADB to manage risks and achieve development results.
  • • Evaluations should enlist the participation of users. To be useful, evaluations need to produce relevant, action-oriented findings. Usefulness is fostered by sustained interaction with users throughout the evaluation process.
  • • Evaluations should be an asset to users. Users should benefit from the process of evaluation and should have a substantial role in drawing up the evaluation agenda. Evaluations can impose a time and resource burden on users, and their participation should not be taken for granted.
  • • The process of evaluation should develop capacity in evaluative thinking and evaluation use. The process of evaluation can increase an organization's ability to be clear and specific about its objectives and to learn and apply lessons. Evaluations should increase the capacities of participants and their comfort with the process of evaluation.
  • • Evaluative thinking should add value from the outset of operations. Evaluative thinking can make the design and implementation of policies, strategies, and operations more effective by clarifying the results to be achieved, the strategies that will contribute to their accomplishment, and the milestones that will demonstrate progress.
  • • Evaluations should test the validity of conventional wisdom about development practice. Demonstrating how and why change happens where it matters most, namely in improving the lives of the poor, calls for regular testing of the accuracy of our development hypotheses. The process of evaluation, which demonstrates concern for accountability, transparency, and improved performance, can help us to learn from past experience to enhance ongoing and future operations.
  • • Evaluations should meet quality standards. To ensure the validity of findings from operations evaluation and the reasonableness of recommendations, accepted social science research methods and procedures should be followed. The quality of evaluations will be assessed against four internationally accepted standards: utility, feasibility, propriety, and accuracy.
  • Foundation Date:December 8, 1991
  • Headquarter :Republic of Belarus
  • President : Sergei Lebedev
  • Member Countries : 12

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was established December 8, 1991 the leaders of the Republic of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine signed an agreement on its establishment. Two weeks later, December 21, 1991 in Alma-Ata chapter eleven sovereign states (except the Baltic states and Georgia, which became a member of the CIS in 1993) signed the Protocol to the Agreement in which they stressed that the Republic of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Republic of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine on equal footing form the Commonwealth of Independent States. The meeting unanimously adopted the Alma-Ata Declaration , reaffirming the commitment of the former Soviet republics to cooperate in various fields of foreign and domestic policy, announced the guarantees fulfillment of international obligations of the former Soviet Union. Later, in December 1993, Georgia joined the Commonwealth.

August 18, 2008 in the CIS Executive Committee received a note from the Foreign Ministry of Georgia to withdraw from the Commonwealth of Independent States. At a meeting of CIS Foreign Ministers Council in Bishkek October 9, 2008 at the initiative of the Presidency of the Commonwealth of Kyrgyzstan, it was decided to technical Georgia's membership in the CIS, according to which Georgia's withdrawal from the Commonwealth will be held 12 months after written notice of the CIS Charter depositary. Thus, in accordance with the Charter of the CIS, August 18, 2009, Georgia officially ceased to be a member of this international organization.

January 22, 1993 in Minsk at the CIS summit was adopted Charter of the Commonwealth . Ukraine did not sign it and Turkmenistan, which thus de jure are not states - members of the CIS, and can be attributed only to the states - founders and states - members of the Commonwealth. Turkmenistan at the Kazan summit of the CIS (26 August 2005) announced that it will participate in the Commonwealth as an "associate member".

Commonwealth of Independent States is the further development and strengthening of relations of friendship, good neighborliness, interethnic harmony, trust, mutual understanding and mutually beneficial cooperation between states.

CIS Commonwealth objectives

In accordance with the Charter of the CIS Commonwealth objectives are as follows:

  • • Implementation of cooperation in political, economic, environmental, humanitarian, cultural and other fields;
  • • Comprehensive and balanced economic and social development of the Member States in the framework of the Common Economic Space, interstate cooperation and integration;
  • • Ensuring human rights and fundamental freedoms in accordance with generally recognized principles and norms of international law and OSCE documents;
  • • Cooperation between Member States in ensuring international peace and security, the implementation of effective measures to reduce armaments and military spending, the elimination of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, the achievement of general and complete disarmament;
  • • Assisting citizens of member states in free communication, contacts and movement in the Commonwealth;
  • • Mutual legal assistance and cooperation in other spheres of legal relations;
  • • Peaceful settlement of disputes and conflicts between states of the Commonwealth.
  • Foundation Date:Apr.8, 1965
  • Headquarter :Brussels(Belgium)
  • President : Herman Van Rompuy
  • Member Countries : 28

The EU is a unique economic and political partnership between 28 European countries that together cover much of the continent.The EU was created in the aftermath of the Second World War. The first steps were to foster economic cooperation: the idea being that countries who trade with one another become economically interdependent and so more likely to avoid conflict. The result was the European Economic Community (EEC), created in 1958, and initially increasing economic cooperation between six countries: Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Since then, a huge single market has been created and continues to develop towards its full potential.

From economic to political union

What began as a purely economic union has evolved into an organisation spanning policy areas, from development aid to environment. A name change from the EEC to the European Union (EU) in 1993 reflected this. The EU is based on the rule of law: everything that it does is founded on treaties, voluntarily and democratically agreed by all member countries. These binding agreements set out the EU's goals in its many areas of activity.

Mobility, growth, stability and a single currency

The EU has delivered half a century of peace, stability and prosperity, helped raise living standards, and launched a single European currency, the euro. Thanks to the abolition of border controls between EU countries, people can travel freely throughout most of the continent. And it's become much easier to live and work abroad in Europe. The single or 'internal' market is the EU's main economic engine, enabling most goods, services, money and people to move freely. Another key objective is to develop this huge resource to ensure that Europeans can draw the maximum benefit from it.

Human rights and equality

One of the EU’s main goals is to promote human rights both internally and around the world. Human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights: these are the core values of the EU. Since the 2009 signing of the Treaty of Lisbon, the EU's Charter of Fundamental Rights brings all these rights together in a single document. The EU's institutions are legally bound to uphold them, as are EU governments whenever they apply EU law.

Transparent and democratic institutions

As it continues to grow, the EU remains focused on making its governing institutions more transparent and democratic. More powers are being given to the directly elected European Parliament, while national parliaments are being given a greater role, working alongside the European institutions. In turn, European citizens have an ever-increasing number of channels for taking part in the political process.

  • Foundation Date:1945
  • Headquarter :Rome
  • President : José Graziano da Silva
  • Member Countries : 194

An intergovernmental organization, FAO has 194 Member Nations, two associate members and one member organization, the European Union. Its employees come from various cultural backgrounds and are experts in the multiple fields of activity FAO engages in. FAO’s staff capacity allows it to support improved governance inter alia, generate, develop and adapt existing tools and guidelines and provide targeted governance support as a resource to country and regional level FAO offices. Headquartered in Rome, Italy, FAO is present in over 130 countries. Achieving food security for all is at the heart of FAO's efforts – to make sure people have regular access to enough high-quality food to lead active, healthy lives.

Objective

• Help eliminate hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition - there is sufficient capacity in the world to produce enough food to feed everyone adequately;nevertheless, in spite of progress made over the last two decades, 842 million people still suffer from chronic hunger. Among children, it is estimated that 162 million under five years of age are chronically malnourished (stunted). Micronutrient deficiencies, or “hidden hunger,” affect over two billion people worldwide, impeding human and socio-economic development and contributing to the vicious cycle of malnutrition and underdevelopment. At the same time, an estimated 500 million people are obese. Beyond the ethical dimensions of this complex problem, the human, social and economic costs to society at large are enormous in terms of lost productivity, health, well-being, decreased learning ability and reduced fulfillment of human potential.

• Make agriculture, forestry and fisheries more productive and sustainable - The world’s population is predicted to increase to 9 billion people by 2050. Some of the world’s highest rates of population growth are predicted to occur in areas that are highly dependent on the agriculture sector (crops. Livestock, forestry and fisheries) and have high rates of food insecurity. Growth in the agriculture sector is one of the most effective means of reducing poverty and achieving food security. Innovative approaches are needed across the agriculture sector to increase productivity, conserve natural resources, and use inputs sustainably and efficiently. Such approaches will require the participation of smallholders, women, indigenous peoples and marginalized groups. Competition over natural resources, such as land, water and oceans, is intensifying and in many places is leading to the exclusion of traditional users from resources and markets. Social and demographic changes in rural areas also affect the labour available for production. The increasing movement of people and goods, and changes in production practices, give rise to new threats from pests, diseases and invasive alien species. Climate change reduces the resilience of production systems and contributes to natural resource degradation. The agriculture sector is both a contributor to, and impacted by, climate change. Improved practices and reducing deforestation and forest degradation offer significant potential for climate change adaptation and mitigation.

• Reduce rural poverty - Most of the world’s poor live in rural areas. Hunger and food insecurity above all are expressions of rural poverty. Reducing rural poverty, therefore, is central to FAO’s mission. Many living in rural areas have been lifted out of poverty in recent decades. In 1990, 54% of those living in rural areas in developing countries lived on less than $1.25 a day and were considered extremely poor. By 2010, this share had dropped to 35%. Rural poverty remains widespread especially in South Asia and Africa. These regions have also seen least progress in improving rural livelihoods. Bringing more people out of rural poverty is not only an imperative of human dignity and a necessity for sustainable food security;it is also good economics. Successful economic development anywhere, typically has been propelled in its initial stages by fast agricultural productivity growth and broader rural development.

• Enable inclusive and efficient agricultural and food systems - With increasing globalization, agriculture as an independent sector will cease to exist, becoming instead, just one part of an integrated value chain. The value chain exits both upstream and downstream, or from production through to processing and sales, in which the whole is now highly concentrated, integrated and globalized. This poses a huge challenge for smallholder farmers and agricultural producers in many developing countries where even the most economically valid smallholders can easily be excluded from important parts of the value chain. They are excluded mainly because they may not have the mechanisms to allow them to be included in the new globalized marketplace.

• Increase the resilience of livelihoods to disasters - Each year, millions of people who depend on the production, marketing and consumption of crops, livestock, fish, forests and other natural resources are confronted by disasters and crises. They can strike suddenly - like an earthquake or a violent coup d’état - or unfold slowly - like drought-flood cycles. They can occur as a single event, one can trigger another,or multiple events can converge and interact simultaneously with cascading and magnified effects. These emergencies threaten the production of, and access to, food at local, national and, at times, regional and global levels.

  • Foundation Date:1944
  • Headquarter :Washington D.C.
  • Member Countries : 188

Founded in 1944 to help Europe recover from World War II, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is one of five institutions that make up the World Bank Group. IBRD is the part of the World Bank (IBRD/IDA) that works with middle-income and creditworthy poorer countries to promote sustainable, equitable and job-creating growth, reduce poverty and address issues of regional and global importance.

Structured something like a cooperative, IBRD is owned and operated for the benefit of its 187 member countries. Delivering flexible, timely and tailored financial products, knowledge and technical services, and strategic advice helps its members achieve results. Through the World Bank Treasury, IBRD clients also have access to capital on favorable terms in larger volumes, with longer maturities, and in a more sustainable manner than world financial markets typically provide.

Middle-income countries, where 70 percent of the world's poor live, have made profound improvements in economic management and governance over the past two decades and are rapidly increasing their demand for the strategic, intellectual and financial resources the World Bank has to offer. The challenge facing the IBRD is to better manage and deliver its resources to best meet the needs of these countries.

To increase its impact in middle-income countries, IBRD is working closely with the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other multilateral development banks. In the course of its work, IBRD is also striving to capitalize on middle-income countries' own accumulated knowledge and development experiences and collaborates with foundations, civil society partners and donors in the development community.

Objective
  • • supports long-term human and social development needs that private creditors do not finance.
  • • preserves borrowers' financial strength by providing support in crisis periods, which is when poor people are most adversely affected.
  • • uses the leverage of financing to promote key policy and institutional reforms (such as safety net or anticorruption reforms).
  • • creates a favorable investment climate in order to catalyze the provision of private capital.
  • • provides financial support (in the form of grants made available from the IBRD's net income) in areas that are critical to the well-being of poor people in all countries.
  • Foundation Date:1914
  • Headquarter :France
  • President: Mrs. Mireille Ballestrazzi
  • Member Countries : 190

The idea of INTERPOL was born in 1914 at the first International Criminal Police Congress, held in Monaco. This meeting brought together police officers and judicial representatives from 24 countries to find ways to cooperate on solving crimes, notably arrest and extradition procedures, identification techniques and the idea of centralized criminal records.

Over the past 100 years, cooperation among police forces internationally has become firmly grounded in practice as crimes and criminals have moved increasingly beyond national borders.

Officially created in 1923, INTERPOL – the International Criminal Police Organization – has seen its membership grow steadily over the years. Today, 190 member countries work together on a daily basis, using the databases, tools and secure communications systems that the Organization offers.

While its vision and mission remain in line with the original goals of the meeting in 1914, the Organization continues to evolve in response to the needs of its member countries, the emergence of new crime trends, and innovations in technology.

Vision and mission

• Connecting police for a safer world - Our Vision is that of a world where each and every law enforcement professional will be able through INTERPOL to securely communicate, share and access vital police information whenever and wherever needed, ensuring the safety of the world's citizens. We constantly provide and promote innovative and cutting-edge solutions to global challenges in policing and security.

• Preventing and fighting crime through enhanced cooperation on police matters - We facilitate the widest possible mutual assistance between all criminal law enforcement authorities. We ensure that police services can communicate securely with each other around the world. We enable global access to police data and information. We provide operational support on specific priority crime areas. We foster continuous improvement in the capacity of police to prevent and fight crime and the development of knowledge and skills necessary for effective international policing.

  • Foundation Date:1960
  • Headquarter :Washington D.C.
  • President:Helen Clark
  • Member Countries : 172

• The International Development Association (IDA) is the part of the World Bank that helps the world’s poorest countries. Established in 1960, IDA aims to reduce poverty by providing loans (called “credits”) and grants for programs that boost economic growth, reduce inequalities, and improve people’s living conditions.

• IDA complements the World Bank’s original lending arm—the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). IBRD was established to function as a self-sustaining business and provides loans and advice to middle-income and credit-worthy poor countries. IBRD and IDA share the same staff and headquarters and evaluate projects with the same rigorous standards.

• IDA is one of the largest sources of assistance for the world’s 82 poorest countries, 40 of which are in Africa. It is the single largest source of donor funds for basic social services in these countries. IDA-financed operations deliver positive change for 2.5 billion people, the majority of whom survive on less than $2 a day.

• IDA lends money on concessional terms. This means that IDA charges little or no interest and repayments are stretched over 25 to 40 years, including a 5- to 10-year grace period. IDA also provides grants to countries at risk of debt distress.

Origins and history

The ILO was created in 1919, as part of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, to reflect the belief that universal and lasting peace can be accomplished only if it is based on social justice.

The Constitution was drafted between January and April, 1919, by the Labour Commission set up by the Peace Conference, which first met in Paris and then in Versailles. The Commission, chaired by Samuel Gompers, head of the American Federation of Labour (AFL) in the United States, was composed of representatives from nine countries: Belgium, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, France, Italy, Japan, Poland, the United Kingdom and the United States. It resulted in a tripartite organization, the only one of its kind bringing together representatives of governments, employers and workers in its executive bodies.

The Constitution contained ideas tested within the International Association for Labour Legislation, founded in Basel in 1901. Advocacy for an international organization dealing with labour issues began in the nineteenth century, led by two industrialists, Robert Owen (1771-1853) of Wales and Daniel Legrand (1783-1859) of France.

The driving forces for ILO's creation arose from security, humanitarian, political and economic considerations. Summarizing them, the ILO Constitution's Preamble says the High Contracting Parties were 'moved by sentiments of justice and humanity as well as by the desire to secure the permanent peace of the world.

There was keen appreciation of the importance of social justice in securing peace, against a background of exploitation of workers in the industrializing nations of that time. There was also increasing understanding of the world's economic interdependence and the need for cooperation to obtain similarity of working conditions in countries competing for markets. Reflecting these ideas, the Preamble states:

• Whereas universal and lasting peace can be established only if it is based upon social justice;

• And whereas conditions of labour exist involving such injustice hardship and privation to large numbers of people as to produce unrest so great that the peace and harmony of the world are imperilled;and an improvement of those conditions is urgently required;

• Whereas also the failure of any nation to adopt humane conditions of labour is an obstacle in the way of other nations which desire to improve the conditions in their own countries.

Mission and objectives

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is devoted to promoting social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights, pursuing its founding mission that labour peace is essential to prosperity. Today, the ILO helps advance the creation of decent work and the economic and working conditions that give working people and business people a stake in lasting peace, prosperity and progress. Its tripartite structure provides a unique platform for promoting decent work for all women and men. Its main aims are to promote rights at work, encourage decent employment opportunities, enhance social protection and strengthen dialogue on work-related issues.

  • Foundation Date:February 1947
  • Headquarter :Switzerland
  • President:Terry Hill
  • Member Countries : 163

The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) story began in 1946 when delegates from 25 countries met at the Institute of Civil Engineers in London and decided to create a new international organization ‘to facilitate the international coordination and unification of industrial standards’. In February 1947 the new organisation, ISO, officially began operations.

Since then,we have published over 19 500 International Standards covering almost all aspects of technology and manufacturing.

Today ISO have members from 161 countries and 3 368 technical bodies to take care of standard development. More than 150 people work full time for ISO’s Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland.

  • Foundation Date:1947
  • Headquarter :Geneva
  • President:Dr Hamadoun I.Touré
  • Member Countries : 193

International Tele Communication Union (ITU) is the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies – ICTs. ITU allocate global radio spectrum and satellite orbits, develop the technical standards that ensure networks and technologies seamlessly interconnect, and strive to improve access to ICTs to underserved communities worldwide. Today, ICTs underpin everything ITU do. With the help of our membership, ITU brings the benefits of modern communication technologies to people everywhere in an efficient, safe, easy and affordable manner.

Mission

The mission of the General Secretariat is to provide high-quality and efficient services to the membership of the Union. The General Secretariat manages the administrative and financial aspects of the Union’s activities, including the provision of conference services, planning and organization of major meetings, information services, security, strategic planning, and corporate functions such as: communications, legal advice, finance, personnel, procurement, internal audit, etc.

  • Chairperson: H.E. Dr Olexandr Horin, Permanent Representative of Ukraine to the OPCW.
  • Director-General: Ahmet Üzümcü
  • Foundation Date:1997
  • Headquarter :The Hague, Netherlands
  • President:Dr Hamadoun I.Touré
  • Member Countries : 190

The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons is the implementing body of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which entered into force in 1997. As of today the OPCW has 190 Member States, who are working together to achieve a world free from chemical weapons. They share the collective goal of preventing chemistry from ever again being used for warfare, thereby strengthening international security.

To this end, the Convention contains four key provisions:

• destroying all existing chemical weapons under international verification by the OPCW;

• monitoring chemical industry to prevent new weapons from re-emerging;

• providing assistance and protection to States Parties against chemical threats; and

• fostering international cooperation to strengthen implementation of the Convention and promote the peaceful use of chemistry.

As existing declared stockpiles are destroyed, the OPCW will continue to work hard to persuade the remaining handful of non-Member States to renounce chemical weapons and join the Convention. At the same time, the OPCW must prevent re-emergence of a chemical weapons threat, whether from States or non-State actors. Since the security environment does not remain static, the OPCW must be capable not only of dealing not only with today’s threats but must adapt to deal with new threats as they evolve or emerge in the future.

The OPCW is given the mandate to achieve the object and purpose of the Convention, to ensure the implementation of its provisions - including those for international verification of compliance with it - and to provide a forum for consultation and cooperation among States Parties The Technical Secretariat is responsible for the day-to-day administration and implementation of the Convention, including inspections, while the Executive Council and the Conference of the States Parties are decision-making organs designed primarily to determine questions of policy and resolve matters arising between the States Parties on technical issues or on interpretations of the Convention. The chairs of the Executive Council and the Conference are appointed by each body's membership. The Technical Secretariat is headed by a Director-General, who is appointed by the Conference on the recommendation of the Council.

Member States

The OPCW Member States already represent about 98% of the global population and landmass, as well as 98% of the worldwide chemical industry. A state becomes a State Party, and thereby a member of the Organisation, by one of three means — ratification, accession or succession. Instruments of ratification, accession or succession must be deposited with the designated Depositary of the Convention, who is the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Non-Member States

List of Signatory States which have not yet ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention, and a list of States that have neither signed nor acceded to the Chemical Weapons Convention. The OPCW provides all States not Party to the CWC support in preparing to join the CWC and to effectively implement the global ban on chemical weapons.

Conference of the States Parties

The Conference of the States Parties is the main policy-making organ of the OPCW. Composed of all Member States, the Conference meets annually as well as in special session when necessary.

Executive Council

The Executive Council is comprised of the representatives of 41 Member States, who are elected by all other OPCW Member States to serve two-year terms.

Technical Secretariat

The Technical Secretariat assists the Conference of States Parties and the Executive Council and has a staff of about 500 people. It carries out the daily work of implementing the Convention, including conducting inspections.

  • Foundation Date:September 1959
  • Headquarter :Vienna (Austria)
  • Secretary-General: Abdalla Salem El-Badri
  • Member Countries : 12

The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a permanent, intergovernmental Organization, created at the Baghdad Conference on September 10–14, 1960, by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. The five Founding Members were later joined by nine other Members: Qatar (1961);Indonesia (1962) – suspended its membership from January 2009;Libya (1962);United Arab Emirates (1967);Algeria (1969);Nigeria (1971);Ecuador (1973) – suspended its membership from December 1992-October 2007;Angola (2007) and Gabon (1975–1994). OPEC had its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, in the first five years of its existence. This was moved to Vienna, Austria, on September 1, 1965.

OPEC's objective is to co-ordinate and unify petroleum policies among Member Countries, in order to secure fair and stable prices for petroleum producers;an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations;and a fair return on capital to those investing in the industry.

  • Foundation Date:1969
  • Headquarter : Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Secretary-General: Mr. Iyad Ameen Madani
  • Member Countries : 57

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) (formerly Organization of the Islamic Conference) is the second largest inter-governmental organization after the United Nations which has membership of 57 states spread over four continents. The Organization is the collective voice of the Muslim world and ensuring to safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony among various people of the world. The Organization was established upon a decision of the historical summit which took place in Rabat, Kingdom of Morocco on 12th Rajab 1389 Hijra (25 September 1969) as a result of criminal arson of Al-Aqsa Mosque in occupied Jerusalem.

In 1970 the first ever meeting of Islamic Conference of Foreign Minister (ICFM) was held in Jeddah which decided to establish a permanent secretariat in Jeddah headed by the organization’s secretary general.

  • Foundation Date:June 7, 2002
  • Headquarter :Shanghai
  • Secretary-General: Dmitry Fedorovich Mezentsev
  • Member Countries : 6
  • Observer States: Afganistan, India, Iran, Pakistan, Mongolia

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is a permanent intergovernmental international organisation creation of which was proclaimed on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai (China) by the Republic of Kazakhstan, the People’s Republic of China, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan and the Republic of Uzbekistan. Its prototype is the Shanghai Five mechanism.

The main goals of the SCO are strengthening mutual confidence and good-neighbourly relations among the member countries;promoting effective cooperation in politics, trade and economy, science and technology, culture as well as education, energy, transportation, tourism, environmental protection and other fields;making joint efforts to maintain and ensure peace, security and stability in the region, moving towards the establishment of a new, democratic, just and rational political and economic international order.

Proceeding from the Spirit of Shanghai the SCO pursues its internal policy based on the principles of mutual trust, mutual benefit, equal rights, consultations, respect for the diversity of cultures and aspiration towards common development, its external policy is conducted in accordance with the principles of non-alignment, non-targeting anyone and openness.

The Heads of State Council (HSC) is the highest decision-making body in the SCO. It meets once every year to take decisions and give instructions on all important issues of SCO activity. The Heads of Government Council (HGC) meets once every year to discuss a strategy for multilateral cooperation and priority directions within the Organisation’s framework, to solve some important and pressing issues of cooperation in economic and other areas as well as to adopt the Organisation’s annual budget. Besides sessions of the HSC and the HGC there are also mechanisms of meetings on the level of Speakers of Parliament, Secretaries of Security Councils, Foreign Ministers, Ministers of Defence, Emergency Relief, Economy, Transportation, Culture, Education, Healthcare, Heads of Law Enforcement Agencies, Supreme Courts and Courts of Arbitration, Prosecutors General. The Council of National Coordinators of SCO Member States (CNC) is in charge of coordinating interaction within the SCO framework. The Organisation has two permanent bodies – the Secretariat in Beijing and the Regional Counter-Terrorism Structure in Tashkent. SCO Secretary-General and RCTS Executive Committee Director are appointed by the HSC for a period of three years. From 01 January 2013 these posts are held by Dmitry F.Mezentsev (Russia) and Zhang Xinfeng (China) respectively.

The SCO member states occupy a territory of around 30 million 189 thousand square kilometers, which makes up three fifths of the Eurasian continent, and have a population of 1.5 billion, which makes up a quarter of the planet’s population.

  • Foundation Date:December 8, 1985
  • Headquarter :Kathmandu
  • Secretary-General: Mr. Arjun Bahadur Thapa
  • Member Countries : 8

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was established when its Charter was formally approved on 8 December 1985 by the Heads of State or Government of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Afghanistan became a member of SAARC during the Fourteenth SAARC Summit held in Delhi, India in April 2007. Until 2009 China, Japan, Republic of Korea, USA, Iran, Mauritius, Australia, Myanmar and the European Union have joined SAARC as Observers.

Objective:
  • 1. To promote the welfare of the peoples of SOUTH ASIA and to improve their quality of life.
  • 2. To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region and to provide all individuals the opportunity to live in dignity and to realise their full potentials.
  • 3. Too promote and strengthen collective self-reliance among the countries of SOUTH ASIA;d) to contribute to mutual trust, understanding and appreciation of one another's problems.
  • 4. To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in the economic, social, cultural, technical and scientific fields.
  • 5. To strengthen cooperation with other developing countries.
  • 6. To strengthen cooperation among themselves in international forums on matters of common interests.
  • 7. To cooperate with international and regional organisations with similar aims and purposes.
  • Foundation Date:March 22, 1945
  • Headquarter :Cairo(Egypt)
  • Secretary-General: Dr. Nabil Elaraby
  • Member Countries : 23
About The League of Arab States

The Arab League is an organization that consists of independent Arab States on the territory of northern and north-eastern part of Africa and southwest Asia. Representatives of the first six member states – Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Saudi Arabia – that initiated the league’s formation signed the agreement in Cairo, on March 22, 1945.

The League’s Goals and Interests

Like similar organizations in the world whose goal is to look after their members’ economic, political, cultural, national and religious interests, the Arab League has been active in helping the Arab world grow economically and culturally, while finding solutions to resolve conflicts both within the League and outside of it.

  • Foundation Date:1961
  • Headquarter :Belgrade
  • Member Countries : 120 as of 2012

The first Conference of Non-Aligned Heads of State, at which 25 countries were represented, was convened at Belgrade in September 1961, largely through the initiative of Yugoslavian President Tito. He had expressed concern that an accelerating arms race might result in war between the Soviet Union and the USA.

Subsequent conferences involved ever-increasing participation by developing countries. The 1964 Conference in Cairo, with 47 countries represented, featured widespread condemnation of Western colonialism and the retention of foreign military installations. Thereafter, the focus shifted away from essentially political issues, to the advocacy of solutions to global economic and other problems.

NAM Structure and Organisation

The founders of the Non-Aligned Movement and their successors recognised that the Movement would probably be destroyed if they created such formal structures for the Movement as a constitution and internal secretariat. A multilateral trans-national organisation made up of states with differing ideologies and purposes could never create a rational administrative structure to implement its policies that all could accept.

Coordination

The Non-Aligned Movement has created a unique form of administrative style. Non-Aligned administration is non-hierarchical, rotational and inclusive, providing all member states, regardless of size and importance, with an opportunity to participate in global decision-making and world politics. The Summit is the occasion when the Movement formally rotates its Chair to the Head of State of the host country of the Summit, who then holds office until the next Summit. The Chair is at the same time also delegated certain responsibilities for promoting the principles and activities of the Movement.

By creating the practice of a rotating chair, Non-Aligned countries therefore place the onus of an administrative structure on the country assuming the Chair. When a country assumes the Chair of the Movement, it creates or designates an entire section of the Foreign Ministry to deal specifically with Non-Aligned issues. Secondly, since Non-Aligned countries meet regularly at the UN and conduct much of their work there, the Chairs' Ambassador at the United Nations essentially functions as the "Minister of Non-Aligned Affairs". The work of the non-aligned often consumes the activities of the Chairs' Permanent Mission in New York.

To facilitate the Chairs' responsibilities a number of structures aimed at improving the coordination and functioning of the existing Working Groups, Contact Groups, Task Forces and Committees of NAM were created. The structures also exist in order to promote the process of achieving a commonality of positions and interests and to see to it that Non-Aligned countries speak with one voice in international meetings and negotiations.

  • Foundation Date:April 4,1949
  • Headquarter :Brussels
  • Secretary-General: Anders Fogh Rasmussen
  • Member Countries : 28

Formed in 1949 with the signing of the Washington Treaty, NATO is a security alliance of 28 countries from North America and Europe. NATO's fundamental goal is to safeguard the Allies' freedom and security by political and military means. NATO remains the principal security instrument of the transatlantic community and expression of its common democratic values. It is the practical means through which the security of North America and Europe are permanently tied together. NATO enlargement has furthered the U.S. goal of a Europe whole, free, and at peace.

Article 5 of the Washington Treaty - that an attack against one Ally is an attack against all - is at the core of the Alliance, a promise of collective defense. Article 4 of the treaty ensures consultations among Allies on security matters of common interest, which have expanded from a narrowly defined Soviet threat to the critical mission in Afghanistan, as well as peacekeeping in Kosovo and new threats to security such as cyber attacks, and global threats such as terrorism and piracy that affect the Alliance and its global network of partners.

In addition to its traditional role in the territorial defense of Allied nations, NATO leads the UN-mandated International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan and has ongoing missions in the Balkans and the Mediterranean;it also conducts extensive training exercises and offers security support to partners around the globe, including the European Union in particular but also the United Nations and the African Union.

United Nations Organization (UNO)

History of United Nation

The name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt was first used in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942. In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. The Organization officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October.

The Charter

The Charter of the United Nations was signed on 26 June 1945, in San Francisco, at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, and came into force on 24 October 1945. The Statute of the International Court of Justice is an integral part of the Charter.

The Purposes of the United Nations

The purposes of the United Nations, as set forth in the Charter, are to maintain international peace and security;to develop friendly relations among nations;to cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms;and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these ends.

Structure

There are established as principal organs of the United Nations: a General Assembly, a Security Council, an Economic and Social Council, a Trusteeship Council, an International Court of Justice and a Secretariat.

General Assembly

The General Assembly is the main deliberative, policy making and representative organ of the UN. Decisions on important questions, such as those on peace and security, admission of new members and budgetary matters, require a two-thirds majority. Each country has one vote. Some Member States in arrear of payment may be granted the right to vote. In September, every year, the world gathers in New York to tackle humanity's most intractable problems in General Assembly meeting.

The Security Council

The Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. It has 15 Members, out of which 5 members are permanent and the remaining 10 members are non-permanent. China, France, Russia, UK and USA are the permanent members. The non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly for 2 years from among the member states. The permanent members of the security council have got veto power. Any matter supported by the majority of the members fails to be carried through if negative vote is cast by any of the permanent members. The Security Council also recommends to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and the admission of new Members to the United Nations. And, together with the General Assembly, it elects the judges of the International Court of Justice.

Economic and Social Council

The Economic and Social Council is elected by the Council at large at the beginning of each annual session. The Council's 54 member Governments are elected by the General Assembly for overlapping three-year terms. Seats on the Council are allotted based on geographical representation with fourteen allocated to African States, eleven to Asian States, six to Eastern European States, ten to Latin American and Caribbean States, and thirteen to Western European and other States.

The Trusteeship Council

The Trusteeship Council as one of the main organs of the United Nations and assigned to it the task of supervising the administration of Trust Territories placed under the Trusteeship System. The Trusteeship Council is made up of the five permanent members of the Security Council - China, France, Russian Federation, United Kingdom and United States. The Trusteeship Council is authorized to examine and discuss reports from the Administering Authority on the political, economic, social and educational advancement of the peoples of Trust Territories and, in consultation with the Administering Authority, to examine petitions from and undertake periodic and other special missions to Trust Territories.

The International Court of Justice (ICJ)

The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN). It was established in June 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations and began work in April 1946. The seat of the Court is at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands). The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of office of nine years by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council.

Secretariat

This organ of the United nations is the chief administrative office which coordinates and supervises the activities of the U. N. This secretariat is headed by a Secretary General who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council' Secretary General of the U. N. is elected for five years and eligible for re-election. The present Secretary General is Baan ki Moon.

Budget

The Office of Programme Planning, Budget and Accounts carries out activities in support of the financial and budgetary operations of the Organization as a whole. The General Assembly approved the programme (regular) budget for 2012-2013 in the amount of US$ 5,152 billion (resolution 66/248). The proposal includes US$1,083 million in respect of special political missions that are expected to be extended or approved during the course of the biennium.

  • Foundation Date:7 April 1948
  • Headquarter :Geneva, Switzerland
  • Director-General: Dr Margaret Chan
  • Member Countries : 194

WHO is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends.

In the 21st century, health is a shared responsibility, involving equitable access to essential care and collective defence against transnational threats.

The objective of the World Health Organization shall be the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health.

  • Foundation Date:1950
  • Headquarter :Geneva
  • President: David Grimes.
  • Member Countries : 191

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It is the UN system's authoritative voice on the state and behaviour of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces and the resulting distribution of water resources.

WMO has a membership of 191 Member States and Territories (on 1 January 2013). It originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was founded in 1873. Established in 1950, WMO became the specialized agency of the United Nations in 1951 for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences.

As weather, climate and the water cycle know no national boundaries, international cooperation at a global scale is essential for the development of meteorology and operational hydrology as well as to reap the benefits from their application. WMO provides the framework for such international cooperation.

Since its establishment, WMO has played a unique and powerful role in contributing to the safety and welfare of humanity. Under WMO leadership and within the framework of WMO programmes, National Meteorological and Hydrological Services contribute substantially to the protection of life and property against natural disasters, to safeguarding the environment and to enhancing the economic and social well-being of all sectors of society in areas such as food security, water resources and transport.

WMO promotes cooperation in the establishment of networks for making meteorological, climatological, hydrological and geophysical observations, as well as the exchange, processing and standardization of related data, and assists technology transfer, training and research. It also fosters collaboration between the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services of its Members and furthers the application of meteorology to public weather services, agriculture, aviation, shipping, the environment, water issues and the mitigation of the impacts of natural disasters.

  • Foundation Date:1 January 1995
  • Headquarter :Geneva, Switzerland
  • Director General: Roberto Azevêdo
  • Member Countries : 159 members on 2 March 2013

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business.

The WTO is run by its member governments. All major decisions are made by the membership as a whole, either by ministers (who usually meet at least once every two years) or by their ambassadors or delegates (who meet regularly in Geneva).

WTO's main activities are:

• Negotiating the reduction or elimination of obstacles to trade (import tariffs, other barriers to trade) and agreeing on rules governing the conduct of international trade (e.g. antidumping, subsidies, product standards, etc.).
• Administering and monitoring the application of the WTO's agreed rules for trade in goods, trade in services, and trade-related intellectual property rights.
• Monitoring and reviewing the trade policies of our members, as well as ensuring transparency of regional and bilateral trade agreements — settling disputes among our members regarding the interpretation and application of the agreements .
• Building capacity of developing country government officials in international trade matters.
• Assisting the process of accession of some 30 countries who are not yet members of the organization .
• Conducting economic research and collecting and disseminating trade data in support of the WTO's other main activities.
• Explaining to and educating the public about the WTO, its mission and its activities.

  • Foundation Date:September 11, 1961
  • Headquarter :Gland (Switzerland)
  • President: Yolanda Kakabadse
  • Member Countries : All the countries of the world

In 1961, a limited number of organizations around the world—such as the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and The Conservation Foundation—were trying to meet conservation needs, but were desperately short of funds.

The first call for broad support was the Morges Manifesto, signed in 1961 by 16 of the world’s leading conservationists, including biologist and African wildlife enthusiast Sir Julian Huxley, IUCN vice president Sir Peter Scott and director-general of the British Nature Conservancy E. M. Nicholson. The Morges Manifesto stated that while the expertise to protect the world environment existed, the financial support to achieve this protection did not. The decision was made to establish World Wildlife Fund as an international fundraising organization to work in collaboration with existing conservation groups and bring substantial financial support to the conservation movement on a worldwide scale.

Mission and Vision

WWF's mission is to conserve nature and reduce the most pressing threats to the diversity of life on Earth.

WWF's vision is to build a future in which people live in harmony with nature.


Family law

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cIVIL law

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bUSINESS law

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Criminal law

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Education law

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