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From Gainedu Organisation

EXCLUSIVE SCHOOLS


In addition to the above, there are a relatively small number of schools that follow foreign curricula such as the so-called Senior Cambridge, though this was largely superseded by the ICSE stream elsewhere. Some of these schools also offer the students the opportunity to sit for the ICSE examinations. These are usually very expensive residential schools where some of the Indians working abroad send their children. They normally have fabulous infrastructure, low student-teacher ratio and very few students. Many of them have teachers from abroad. There are also other exclusive schools such as the Doon School in Dehradun that take in a small number of students and charge exorbitant fees. Apart from all of these, there are a handful of schools around the country, such as the Rishi Valley school in Andhra Pradesh, that try to break away from the normal education system that promotes rote learning and implement innovative systems such as the Montessori method. Most such schools are expensive, have high teacher-student ratios and provide a learning environment in which each child can learn at his/her own pace. It would be interesting and instructive to do a study on what impact the kind of school has had on the life of their alumni.

STATE SCHOOLS


Each state in the country has its own Department of Education that runs its own school system with its own textbooks and evaluation system. As mentioned earlier, the curriculum, pedagogy and evaluation method are largely decided by the SCERT in the state, following the national guidelines prescribed by the NCERT. Each state has three kinds of schools that follow the state curriculum. The government runs its own schools in land and buildings owned by the government and paying the staff from its own resources. These are generally known as government schools. The fees are quite low in such schools. Then there are privately owned schools with their own land and buildings. Here the fees are high and the teachers are paid by the management. Such schools mostly cater to the urban middle class families. The third kind consists of schools that are provided grant-in-aid by the government, though the school was started by a private agency in their own land and buildings. The grant-in-aid is meant to help reduce the fees and make it possible for poor families to send their children. In some states like Kerala, these schools are very similar to government schools since the teachers are paid by the government and the fees are the same as in government schools.

PRIMARY EDUCATION


Primary and Middle (lower primary (Standards I to V) and upper primary (Standards VI to VIII)) education is compulsory and free in India. Primary education begins at age 6 with Middle/Upper Primary school education ending at age 14. Schooling is offered at state-run and private schools, however, private schools often have poorer facilities and infrastructure than government schools. The regional language is the medium of instruction for most primary schools and English as a second language generally begins by grade 3.

SECONDARY EDUCATION


Secondary education begins in grade 9 and lasts until grade 12. The secondary stage is broken into two, two year cycles, generally referred to as General/Lower Secondary School, or ‘Standard X’, and Upper/Senior Secondary School, or ‘Standard XII’. Education continues to be free at government schools, although private education is more common at the secondary level. Public examinations are held at the end of both cycles and grant access to grade 11 and university level study respectively. General curriculum for lower secondary school in India consists of three languages (including the regional language, an elective, and English language), Mathematics, Science and Technology, Social Sciences, Work/Pre-Vocational Education, Art, and Physical Education. Secondary schools are affiliated with Central or State boards which administer the Secondary School Certificate at the end of grade 10.

Based upon performance in the first two years of secondary school, and upon the SSC results, students may enter Senior/Upper Secondary School. Upper Secondary School offers the students a chance to select a ‘stream’ or concentration of study, offering science, commerce, and arts/humanities. Education is administered both in schools or two-year junior colleges which are often affiliated with degree granting universities or colleges. Curriculum for the Higher Secondary Certificate Examination is determined by the boards of secondary education of which there are 31. Although the HSCE is the most common Standard XII examination, the All India Senior School Certificate (CBSE), Indian School Certificate, Certificate of Vocational Education (CISCE), Senior Secondary Certification (NIOS), Intermediate Certificate and the Pre-University Certificate are also offered.

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION


Young people who do not wish to go on to tertiary education, or who fail to complete secondary school often enroll at privately-owned vocational schools that specialize in just one or only a few courses. Unlike in the United States, vocational and technical education is not highly specialized and is rather a broad overview of knowledge applicable to employment. The curriculum offered is composed up of a language course, foundation courses, and electives, of which half of electives are practical in nature. Examinations at the end of vocational education are conducted by the All India and State Boards of Vocational Education.

TERTIARY EDUCATION


India’s higher education system is highly centralized and undergoing large changes since its inception in 1947. Largely based upon the British system of education, educational policy is ever-developing. University education is overseen by the University Grants Commission (UGC), which is responsible for the development of higher education, allocating funds, and recognition of institutions in India. The National Accreditation and Assessment Council (NAAC) was established by the UGC to assess universities and college based upon an alphabetical ranking system ranging from A++ to C. The assessment and Accreditation is broadly used for understanding the Quality Status of an institution and indicates that the particular institution meets the standards of quality as set by the NAAC. Participation in the accreditation process of NAAC is voluntary. The All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was also established to oversee quality control of technical education and regulate establishment of new private professional colleges. All recognized universities are members of the Association of Indian Universities (AIU), which is integral to the dissemination of information and serves as an advisor to the government, UGC, and the institutions themselves.

There are various types of tertiary institutions in India, namely Universities (Central, State, Open), Universities of National Importance, and Deemed universities. Instruction of the majority of students, almost 80%, is completed at affiliated colleges with the curriculum, examinations, and final degree being designed and granted by the university. Constituent and Autonomous colleges also exist; though less common although they do enjoy greater autonomy in regards to curriculum development and assessment. Admission to undergraduate courses generally requires completion of the Standard XII years of schooling and admittance to university depends almost exclusively upon performance on the examination. Bachelor’s degrees in the fields of arts, science, social studies, and commerce are almost exclusively three year programs. Diploma programs exist and range from 2 – 3 years in length and are provided at polytechnics, usually in a specialized engineering or technological field, and culminating in an Advanced or Post Diploma. Professional Bachelor’s degrees, in the fields of Medicine, Architecture, Law, etc., vary from 4 – 5.5 years depending upon the discipline. Admission to graduate (Master, Post Graduate Diplomas, MBA, etc.) programs is dependent upon completion of a bachelor’s degree (3 or 4 years, depending upon the subject) with a Second Class pass or higher. Non-university education in Management is popular in India, with many institutions offering Post Graduate Diplomas in Management, lasting 2 years and generally equivalent to an MBA. Doctoral level degrees require a minimum of two or three years and consist of research and a thesis or dissertation.

Beginning in 2015, the Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) was introduced by the UGC in attempts to encourage a more interdisciplinary approach to education and offer more flexibility and choice to students. The reform also introduced a standardized assessment and grading plan based upon a 10 point scale. Since its inception, the system has faced scrutiny by students and administrators, noting that although the system promises choice and flexibility, the infrastructure of the educational system now may be too weak yet to support the overhaul. The present day education system in India has come a long way and the age old traditions have undergone a makeover to produce an ecosystem that is evolving every single day. Initiatives like the Right to Education Act have provided an impetus to growth and progress by laying special emphasis on elementary education in India. Combined with policy changes like making child labour illegal the being government is working ensure that the seeds of education are planted in both the rural and less privileged sub-urban areas of the country though there are a number of pressing challenges at hand that hamper the proliferation.

INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM


Key Challenges for the Indian Education System
25% of the Indian population is illiterate.
Only 7% of the population that goes to school managed to graduate and only 15% of those who enroll manage to make it to high school and achieve a place in the higher education system.
A few reasons why education in India is given less importance in some areas are as follows:
• 80% of schools are managed by the government. Private schools are expensive and out of reach of the poor.
• More hands to earn remains the mentality amongst many families and therefore little kids are set out to fend for the family over going to school to garner an adequate education, in the most literal sense of the word.
• Infrastructure facilities at schools across rural areas and in slums dispense very poor quality of education.
• The teachers are not well qualified and therefore not well paid and therefore are not willing to work hard enough. This has been a classical Catch-22 problem that the government has been trying hard to fight against.
An Overview Of The Levels of Education in India
The type of education systems in India can be classified as:
1) Pre primary education: in India: Pre-primary school education in India is not a fundamental right and is divided into two levels – Lower KG ( for children between 3 – 4 years) and Upper KG ( for children between 4 – 5 years).
2) Primary Education in India: This serves as the link between primary school and elementary education. However, not much emphasis is laid on this level by the prevailing education system and policies in this regard continue to exist solely on paper.
3) Elementary Education:The Government has made elementary education compulsory for children between the age group of years 6 and 14.
4) Secondary Education in India: Serves as a link between elementary and higher education in the Indian education setup, which draws a blank again as far as policy is concerned.
5) Higher Education in India: Under graduate and post graduate level: After completion of secondary education, students can choose fields of their interest and pursue undergraduate and then post graduate courses.
Curriculum Bodies
Catering to the largerst population in the world is no easy task and as the annals of beureaucracy dictate, there are more than 15 education boards across the country.
While some of them are regional, the more interesting ones are listed below:
The NCERT – Apex Body for curriculum:
As far as school education and its functions are concerned, the National Council of Educational Research and Training takes care of all curriculum related matters. Various schools in the country seek technical assistance from this body.
State Government Boards: Since 80% of the schools in India are managed by the government, this is the board under which the most children in India get enrolled. The Board of Secondary Education across major states has achieved its objectives of developing various systems.
CBSE: The Central Board of Secondary Education which falls under the purview of the Central Government is a board of education for both public and private schools in India.
ICSE: The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations Board is a non-governmental and private education board for education in India.
NIOS: Established by the Government of India and the Ministry for Human Resource Development in 1989, the National Institute of Schooling Board aims at providing quality education in rural areas in a inexpensive manner.
Cambridge International Exams/IB: International Baccalaureate or Cambridge International Examinations offer international qualifications to students. This is a recent phenomenon in various parts of the country and is mostly offered by upmarket schools and the like.
Islamic Madrasah Schools: These schools may be either controlled by the state government, run autonomously or may be affiliated with the Darul Uloom Deoband that is in the Sahranpur District of Uttar Pradesh.
While there are a number of drawbacks of the education system in India, a number of efforts are being made to create awareness and action for education in India. Efforts like the Sarva Shisksha Abhiyan aim at making education and good quality of life for today’s children possible by providing community owned school systems. Another indicator of a brighter tomorrow is the Right of Children to free and compulsory education. Large investments in the education system truly make us believe that the children of India will get off the streets and start making education their mainstay for a successful life.

Family law

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cIVIL law

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bUSINESS law

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Criminal law

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Education law

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